Faux Foxes: Fox Domestication and Pet Ownership | Chapter IV: Results

CHAPTER IV

RESULTS

Pet Dogs Compared to Pet Domesticated Foxes

Inter-item reliability was calculated for Items 7-14 of Section II measuring participant attitudes toward dogs as pets and Items 17-24 of Section III measuring participant attitudes toward domesticated foxes as pets. Cronbach alphas showed strong inter-item consistency, 0.93 and 0.92, respectively. The combined 16 items had inter-item reliability of 0.93. Items 7-14 were summed to find a participant’s Pet Dog Attitude Score and Items 17-24 were summed to find a participant’s Pet Fox Attitude Score.

As anticipated, dogs were perceived 20% more favorably than domesticated foxes as pets, M = 4.48, SD = 1.0 compared with M = 3.48, SD = 1.45, respectively. The total Pet Dog Attitude Scores and Pet Fox Attitude Scores were significantly, positively correlated to each other (r = 0.34, p < .001).

 

Pet Dog Attitude Score and Pet Fox Attitude Score Correlations

Attitude
Score
Correlation
Pet Dog
Attitude Score
Pet Fox
Attitude Score
Pet Dog

Attitude

Score

Pearson Correlation 1 .344
Sig. (1-Tailed) .001
Sum of Squares and Cross-Products 773.582 384.923
Covariance .998 .497
Pet Fox

Attitude

Score

Pearson Correlation .344 1
Sig. (1-Tailed) .001
Sum of Squares and Cross-Products 384.923 1619.479
Covariance .497 2.092

Note. The Pet Dog Attitude Score was the sum of a participant’s responses to the Pet Dog Attitude Scale, Items 7-14. The Pet Fox Attitude Score was the sum of a participant’s responses to the Pet Fox Attitude Scale, Items 17-24.

 

Section II and Section III Direct Correlations

Items
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (1-Tailed)
7, 17 .507 .001
8, 18 .503 .001
9, 19 .614 .001
10, 20 .243 .008
11, 21 .367 .001
12, 22 .344 .001
13, 23 .324 .001
14 24 .446 .001
15, 25 .616 .001
16, 26 .213 .018

Note. All the items in Section III identically resembled the items in Section II with a slight rewording of “pet dog” to “pet domesticated fox” in each item. This ensured that any change in participant attitude was strictly due to the change of animal associated with each item.

 

 Pet Dog Attitude Scale Correlations

Item
Correlation
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
7 Pearson Correlation 1 .649 .423 .704 .704 .715 .652 .577
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001
8 Pearson Correlation .649 1 .664 .720 .628 .702 .706 .632
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001
9 Pearson Correlation .423 .664 1 .471 .488 .435 .508 .429
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001
10 Pearson Correlation .704 .720 .471 1 .661 .763 .781 .687
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001
11 Pearson Correlation .704 .628 .488 .661 1 .667 .568 .577
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001
12 Pearson Correlation .715 .702 .435 .763 .667 1 .763 .689
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001
13 Pearson Correlation .652 .706 .508 .781 .568 .763 1 .799
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001
14 Pearson Correlation .577 .632 .429 .687 .577 .689 .799 1
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001

 

Pet Fox Attitude Scale Correlations

Item
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
17 Pearson Correlation 1 .816 .621 .536 .644 .637 .405 .501
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001
18 Pearson Correlation .816 1 .591 .474 .549 .589 .426 .496
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001
19 Pearson Correlation .621 .591 1 .375 .451 .409 .424 .494
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001
20 Pearson Correlation .536 .474 .375 1 .770 .592 .681 .702
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001
21 Pearson Correlation .644 .549 .451 .770 1 .670 .620 .661
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001
22 Pearson Correlation .637 .589 .409 .592 .670 1 .595 .602
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001
23 Pearson Correlation .405 .426 .424 .681 .620 .595 1 .792
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001
24 Pearson Correlation .501 .496 .494 .702 .661 .602 .792 1
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .001

Note: The Pet Fox Attitude Scale was composed of Items 17-24 in Section III of the survey.

 

Pet Fox Attitude Scale and Pet Fox Attitude Scale Correlations

Item
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
7 Pearson Correlation .507 .314 .366 .294 .354 .390 .240 .301
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .002 .001 .001 .009 .001
8 Pearson Correlation .391 .503 .365 .220 .269 .357 .276 .343
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .015 .004 .001 .003 .001
9 Pearson Correlation .310 .346 .614 .138 .166 .215 .228 .306
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .090 .052 .017 .013 .001
10 Pearson Correlation .288 .311 .327 .243 .258 .342 .218 .266
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.002 .001 .001 .008 .005 .001 .016 .004
11 Pearson Correlation .425 .299 .390 .282 .367 .399 .267 .363
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .003 .001 .001 .004 .001
12 Pearson Correlation .299 .354 .271 .241 .251 .344 .283 .372
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .004 .009 .007 .001 .003 .001
13 Pearson Correlation .395 .438 .431 .274 .283 .354 .324 .378
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .003 .003 .001 .001 .001
14 Pearson Correlation .342 .361 .416 .334 .374 .282 .277 .446
Sig.

(1-Tailed)

.001 .001 .001 .001 .001 .003 .003 .001

Note: The Pet Dog Attitude Scale was composed of Items 7-14 in Section II of the survey. The Pet Fox Attitude Scale was composed of Items 17-24 in Section III of the survey.

Items 30, 37, 44, 51, and 58 asked participants to report how confident they were that one of the foxes shown in the set of five images would make a good pet on a scale of 1-5, with 5 being the most confident. For Section IV A, B, and C, participants chose 3 most frequently, but for Section IV D and E, 1, least confident, was chosen most frequently. The average responses for Section IV A, B, C, D, and E were 2.8, 2.93, 2.98, 2.9, and 2.85 respectively. On average overall, participants responded with a 2.89 on how confident they were that the foxes pictured would make a good pet.

In Item 20 of Section III when participants were asked how confident they were that “domesticated foxes make good pets,” the average response was a 2.97. This shows that participants were 1.6% less confident that a fox would make a good pet when looking at an illustration of a fox than not looking at an illustration. When asked how confident they were that “dogs make good pets” in Item 10 of Section II, the average response was a 4.6. This shows that participants were 34.2% less confident that a fox would make a good pet compared to a dog making a good pet.

Items 31, 38, 45, 52, and 59 asked participants if they would like to own any of the foxes from the set of five images as a pet. For every single set of images, participants most frequently responded that they would like to own one of the foxes as a pet. 66.32% wanted a pet from Section IV A, 63.74% wanted a pet from Section IV B, 64.77% wanted a pet from Section IV C, 63.74% wanted a pet from Section IV D, and 60.23% wanted a pet from Section IV E.

In Item 22 of Section II, participants were asked to agree on a scale of 1-5, in which 5 meant most agreement, with the statement, “If circumstances allowed and money was not an issue, I would like to own a pet domesticated fox.” The most frequent response was a 5 at 36.08% and the average response was 3.38. This shows an average of 67.6% of participants showing an interest in owning a domesticated fox as a pet. In comparison, a similar question in Section II regarding dogs. Again, the most frequent response was a 5, however, the frequency was much higher at 75.26% of the participants. The average response was 4.44, showing an average of 88.8% of participants showing confidence in wanting a dog as a pet. This shows that, on average, participants wanted a dog as a pet 21.2% more than a domesticated fox as a pet.


Ethical and Legal Attitudes

The relation between ethical and legal attitudes comparing pet-dog and pet-fox ownership was also examined.

Item 15 and Item 25 asked participants how confidently they agree to the statement: “It is ethical to selectively breed pet dogs/wild foxes, eventually altering them to suit our needs.” The average scores for Items 15 and 25 were in the low-moderate agreement range for both dogs and foxes, M = 2.84, SD = 1.28 and M = 2.46, SD = 1.34, respectively. Participants were 7.6% more in favor for the selective breeding of dogs over foxes. There was a significant, positive relation for Items 15 and 25, r = 0.62, p < .001.

Item 16 and Item 26 asked participants how confidently they agree to the statement: “It should be legal in the United States to own a pet dog/domesticated fox.” These items showed more favorable attitude scores for pet dogs than pet domesticated foxes, M ­= 4.48, SD = 1.27 and M = 3.25, SD = 1.5. Participants were 24.6% more in favor for the legal ownership of dogs over foxes and 40% more in favor for the legal possession of pet dogs than the breeding of pet dogs to suit our needs. Participants favored owning pet domesticated foxes only 15.8% more than breeding wild foxes. There was also a significant, positive relation for Items 16 and 26, r = 0.21, p = 0.18.

Participant attitudes toward dogs, in general, (ethics and legality,) were not correlated (r = 0.04, p > .05), but participant attitudes toward fox ethics and fox legality were significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.61, p < 0.001). Attitudes about pet-dog breeding ethics was significantly, positively correlated with attitudes about pet domesticated fox ownership legality (r = 0.31, p = .001). However, participant attitudes toward pet-dog ownership laws were not significantly correlated with attitudes toward fox ethics (r = 0.1, p = .16).

Further, Pearson correlations were determined for relations between Pet Dog Attitude Scores and Pet Fox Attitude Scores and the attitudes toward the ethics and legality of breeding and owning these different pets. Pet Dog Attitude Scores were significantly, positively correlated with attitudes toward dog breeding ethics (r = 0.23, p = .01), dog ownership legality (r = 0.34, p < .001), and fox breeding ethics (r = 0.17, p = .045), but not significantly correlated with attitudes toward fox ownership legality (r = 0.13, p > .05). Pet Fox Attitude Scores were significantly, positively correlated with attitudes toward dog ownership legality (r = 0.24, p = 0.1), fox breeding ethics (r = .33, p < .001) as well as fox ownership legality (r = .39, p < .001). However, Pet Fox Attitude Scores were not significantly correlated with attitudes toward dog breeding ethics, although it trended toward significance, p = .057, (r = 0.16, p > .05).

 

Pet Dog Attitude Score and Pet Fox Attitude Score; Attitude Toward Pet-dog breeding Ethics; Dog Ownership Laws; Wild Fox Breeding Ethics; and Fox Ownership Laws Correlations

Item
Correlation
Item 15:
Dog Ethics
Item 16:
Dog Laws
Item 25:
Fox Ethics
Item 26:
Fox Laws
Pet Dog

Attitude

Score

Pearson Correlation .229 .336 .174 .127
Sig. (1-Tailed) .012 .001 .045 .108
Sum of Squares and Cross-Products 26.062 36.443 20.701 16.907
Covariance .271 .380 .216 .176
Pet Fox

Attitude

Score

Pearson Correlation .162 .236 .333 .393
Sig. (1-Tailed) .057 .010 .001 .001
Sum of Squares and Cross-Products 26 36 56 74
Covariance .271 .375 .583 .771
Item 15:

Dog Ethics

Pearson Correlation 1 .038 .616 .314
Sig. (1-Tailed) .354 .001 .001
Sum of Squares and Cross-Products 157.361 5.753 101.423 57.959
Covariance 1.639 .060 1.056 .604
Item 16:

Dog Laws

Pearson Correlation .038 1 .104 .213
Sig. (1-Tailed) .354 .156 .018
Sum of Squares and Cross-Products 5.753 142.227 16.196 37.371
Covariance .060 1.482 .169 .389
Item 25:

Fox Ethics

Pearson Correlation .616 .104 1 .606
Sig. (1-Tailed) .001 .156 .001
Sum of Squares and Cross-Products 101.423 16.196 172.124 116.866
Covariance 1.056 .169 1.793 1.217
Item 26:

Fox Laws

Pearson Correlation .314 .213 .606 1
Sig. (1-Tailed) .001 .018 .001
Sum of Squares and Cross-Products 57.959 37.371 116.866 216.062
Covariance .604 .389 1.217 2.251

Note: The Pet Dog Attitude Scale was composed of Items 7-14 in Section II of the survey. The Pet Fox Attitude Scale was composed of Items 17-24 in Section III of the survey.


Perceptions of Wild to Domesticated Fox Images

Response frequencies for Section IV of the survey were examined to determine participant responses to manipulations of canine physical attributes by domestication. The results of Section IV A, B, C, and E were compared together while the results from Section IV D were viewed separately.

Section IV D was unlike the other four subsections of Section IV, A, B, C, and E in the fact that it did not show a gradual increase in the amount of manipulation brought on by domestication in its set of five images with the top image being the least domesticated and the bottom image being most domesticated. Instead, the five images were unrelated to one another, simply showing five different fur colors a domesticated fox can have, two found in the wild and three only found in selectively bred foxes. For this reason, Section IV D must be analyzed separately from Section IV A, B, C, and E.

In Items 33, 40, 47, 54, and 61, participants were asked to determine which elements of the feral fox to domesticated fox morphs were altered in each of the five sets of five feral to domesticated fox images: ears only, tail only, fur color only, and lastly, multiple changes to the morph. The first subsection, Section IV A, included changes in the stop angle and body part lengths and was considered a practice trial as the results of Item 33 were not included in the data analysis. Participant frequencies of accurate responses and percent correct for feature changes were: ears, 80/18 (82% correct); tail, 83/13 (86% correct), fur color, 72/23 (76% correct) and multiple changes, 76/22 (78% correct). A 4 x 2 contingency coefficient showed there were no significant differences in correct and incorrect estimates of the four domesticated features: ears, tail, color, and multiple changes (χ2 = 4.11(3), p > .05).

Domestication

When physical attributes that were changed gradually by domestication were viewed separately from each other in Items 27, 34, and 41, the most frequent participant responses determined a fox domesticated when its stop angle reached 130° or less, snout length was 57% or less the total length of the fox’s head, the legs were 72% or less the total height of the fox, the tail was .73 times or less the length of the body, the ears curled downward 6.52% or more, and the tail curled upward 45° or more. Average participant responses determined that the fox appeared domesticated when the stop angle reached an angle of 129.5°or less; the snout length was 56.7% or less of the total length of the fox’s head; the legs were 71.8% or less the total height of the fox; the tail was 0.73 or less times the length of the body (M = 3.10); the ears curled downwards at least 11.87% in relation to the total height of the fox’s ear (M = 2.82); and the tail curled upwards at least 84.6° (M = 2.88).

When multiple traits were changed simultaneously in Item 55, the fox was considered domesticated by the participants, on average, when the stop angle reached an angle of 131.6°or less; the snout length was 57.96% or less the total length of the fox’s head; the legs were 72.32% or less the total height of the fox; the ears curled downward at least 10.95%; and the tail curled at an angle of 75.6° or more (M = 2.68). Participants labeled a fox domesticated 10.5% sooner based on the fox’s stop angle and snout length snout length, 10.4% sooner based on leg length, 3.5% sooner based on ear curl, and 5% sooner based on tail curl. On average, participants determined the fox to appear more domesticated 7.98% faster when viewing images in which multiple traits were transformed all at once over images in which only one trait was manipulated.

 

Determining Point of Fox Domestication Based on Average Participant Response to Individual Traits Compared to Composite Traits

Trait
Individual Traits
Composite Traits
Difference
(%)
Stop Angle 129.5 131.6 10.5
Snout Length (% of total head length) 56.7 57.96 10.5
Leg Length (%of total height) 71.8 72.32 10.4
Ear Curl (% of total ear height) 11.87 10.95 3.5
Tail Curl Angle 84.6 75.6 5

 

Items 28, 35, 42, and 56 asked participants to identify the image in which the fox appeared most domesticated. In all instances, the most frequent response was Figure E, the image designed to contain the strongest manipulations of physical attributes by domestication. The average participant responses show a slightly different result, however. On a scale of 1-5, with 1 representing a wild fox and 5 representing a domesticated fox, participant mean responses for Section IV A, B, C, and E were: 3.51, 4.32, 4.25, and 3.68 respectively. In this case, Figure D represents the average response instead of Figure E.

In Item 49 of Section IV D, participants most frequently chose the Georgian white-colored fox, at 37.50%, as the one that appeared the most domesticated compared to the silver-, red-, piebald-, and platinum-colored fox. The silver-colored fox was chosen the least often at 6.25% followed by the red-colored fox at 11.46%. This shows that domesticated coat colors were perceived as more domesticated, 82.3% of the time.

Attraction

In Items 29, 36, 43, and 57 participants were asked to choose the fox that appeared the most attractive. In all instances, participants most frequently chose Figure A, the image intended to depict a standard, wild red fox unaffected by physical changes brought on by domestication. In this image, the fox’s stop angle was 140°, the snout length was 63% the total length of the fox’s head, the legs made up 74% of the fox’s total height, the tail was 0.79 times the length of the body and curled upwards 0°, and the ears curled downward 0%. On average, however, participants preferred a fox with a stop angle of 132.35°, a snout length 58.41% the total length of the fox’s face, legs that made up 72.47% the fox’s total height, a tail 0.74 times the length of the body (M = 2.53), ears curled downward 4.89% (M = 1.75), and the tail curled upward 76.5° (M = 2.70) when viewing each physical attribute separately.

When viewing images in which the stop angle, snout length, and leg length decreased and the ear curl and tail curl increased all at once in Item 57, participants chose, on average, foxes with a stop angle of 134.05°, a snout length 59.43% the total length of the fox’s head, legs 72.81% the total height of the fox, ears that curled downward 7.76%, and a tail that curled upwards 53.55° (M = 2.19). This means that participants preferred fox stop angles and snouts that were 8.5% more wild-looking, legs that were 6.8% more wild-looking, tails that were 12.75% more wild-looking, and ears that were 11% less wild-looking than when looking at this physical traits individually.

 

Most Attractive Foxes Based on Average Participant Response to Individual Traits Compared to Composite Traits

Trait
Individual Traits
Composite Traits
Difference
(%)
Stop Angle 132.35 134.05 8.5
Snout Length (% of total head length) 58.41 59.43 8.5
Leg Length (%of total height) 72.47 72.81 6.8
Ear Curl (% of total ear height) 4.89 7.76 -11
Tail Curl Angle 76.5 53.55 12.75

 

In Item 50 of Section IV D when looking at images of foxes sporting different colored fur, participants most frequently chose the standard, wild, red-colored fox as the most attractive of them all at 35.42%. The platinum was the second most frequently chosen at 19.79%, followed by the Georgian White at 18.75%, the piebald at 15.63%, and the silver chosen the least at 10.42%. Domesticated fur colors, (piebald, platinum, and Georgian White,) were chosen as the most attractive fur color 54.17% of the time.

Ownership Desirability

Participants also gave responses to which pictured red fox they would most like to own as a pet in Items 32, 39, 46, and 60. The most frequent participant responses picked a fox with a stop angle of 120°, a snout length 51% the total length of the fox’s head, legs 69% the total height of the fox, a tail .68 times the length of the body, ears that had a downward curl of 0°, and a tail with a 180° curl. The average participant responses found that the most-wanted pet fox that showed a stop angle of 128.8°, a snout length 56.28% the total length of the fox’s head, a leg length that totaled 71.52% the fox’s height, a tail that was 0.73 times the length of the fox’s body (M = 3.24), ears that curled over 10.95% (M = 2.68), and a curl in the tail at 107.55° (M = 3.39).

 

Most Desired Pet Fox Based on Most Frequent Participant Response to Individual Traits

The most frequent participant responses demonstrated a fox is most attractive with a stop angle of 120°, a snout length 51% the total length of the fox’s head, legs 69% the total height of the fox, a tail .68 times the length of the body, ears that had a downward curl of 0°, and a tail with a 180° curl.

 

When viewing images in which the stop angle, snout length, and leg length decreased and the ear curl and tail curl increased all at once in Item 60, participants chose, on average, foxes with a stop angle of 131.35°, a snout length 57.81% the total length of the fox’s head, legs 72.27% the total height of the fox, ears that curled downward 11.28%, and a tail that curled upwards 77.85° (M = 2.73). This means that participants preferred fox stop angles and snouts that were 12.75% more wild-looking, legs that were 15% more wild-looking, tails that were 16.5% more wild-looking, and oddly, ears that were 1.25% less wild-looking than when looking at this physical traits individually.

 

Most Desired Pet Fox Based on Most Frequent Participant Response to Individual Traits Compared to Composite Traits

Trait
Individual Traits
Composite Traits
Difference (%)
Stop Angle 128.8 131.35 12.75
Snout Length (% of total head length) 56.28 57.81 12.75
Leg Length (%of total height) 71.52 72.27 15
Ear Curl (% of total ear height) 10.95 11.28 -1.25
Tail Curl Angle 107.55 77.85 16.5

 

When participants were asked to choose the fox that they would most like to own as a pet in Item 53 of Section IV D when looking at foxes with five different coat colors, participants chose the red-colored fox the most frequently at 26.04%, followed by the piebald-colored fox at 23.69%, the Georgian White at 22.92%, the platinum at 18.75%, and the silver-colored fox chosen the least frequently at 8.33%. Participants preferred foxes with domesticated fur colors 65.63% of the time.

 

Section IV Most Frequent Responses

Items
Item Text
Section IV A:
Stop Angle & Body Part Length
Section IV B:
Ear Curl
Section IV C:
Tail Curl Angle
Section IV E:
Composite
Figure Frequency (%)
Figure Frequency (%)
Figure Frequency (%)
Figure Frequency (%)
27, 34, 41, 55

In which image does the animal begin

resembling a domestic animal rather than a wild animal?

C

25.77

B

46.39

B

47.92

B

47.83

28, 35, 42, 56

Which animal appears the most domesticated?

E

50.52

E

73.20

E

72.92

E

56.84

29, 36, 43, 57

Which animal do you think is the most

attractive?

A

46.39

A

68.75

A

38.54

A

52.13

32, 39, 46, 60

Which animal would you most like to own as a pet?

E

34.02

A

35.05

E

46.88

A

34.74

Note: This table shows the most frequent responses chosen by participants in Section IV followed by the percentage of participants whom chose that response.

 

In each subsection of Section IV, the first image, Figure A, was a standard wild red fox with common physical attributes, the least domesticated animal pictured. The following four images Figures B, C, D, and E. were gradually manipulated to replicate how domestication changes physical attributes. Figure E was the most manipulated and demonstrated an extreme physical transformation caused by domestication, making it the most domesticated animal pictured.

 

Section IV Means and Standard Deviations

Items
Item Text
Section IV A:
Stop Angle & Body Part Length
Section IV B:
Ear Curl
Section IV C:
Tail Curl Angle
Section IV E:
Composite
Mean,
Standard Deviation
Mean,
Standard Deviation
Mean,
Standard Deviation
Mean,
Standard Deviation
27, 34, 41, 55

In which image does the animal begin resembling a domestic animal rather than a wild animal?

3.10

1.295

2.82

1.099

2.88

1.163

2.68

1.058

28, 35, 42, 56

Which animal appears the most domesticated?

3.51

1.763

4.32

1.271

4.25

1.376

3.86

1.527

29, 36, 43, 57

Which animal do you think is the most attractive?

2.53

1.614

1.75

1.290

2.70

1.668

2.19

1.498

30, 37, 44, 58

How confident are you, on a scale of 1-5, with 5 being the most confident, that one of these animals would make a good pet?

2.80

1.359

2.93

1.379

2.98

1.392

2.85

1.391

32, 39, 46, 60

Which animal would you most like to own as a pet?

3.24

1.644

2.68

1.630

3.39

1.719

2.73

1.601

Note: In each subsection of Section IV, the first image, 1, was a standard wild red fox with common physical attributes, the least domesticated animal pictured. The following four images 2, 3, 4, and 5 were gradually manipulated to replicate how domestication changes physical attributes. 5 was the most manipulated and demonstrated an extreme physical transformation caused by domestication, making it the most domesticated animal pictured.

 

Section IV D Response Frequencies

Item
Red
Silver
Piebald
Platinum
Georgian White
48. In which image

does the animal begin resembling a domestic animal rather than a

wild animal?

10.42 33.33

40.63

10.42 5.21
49. Which animal

appears the most

domesticated?

11.46 6.25 29.17 15.63

37.50

50. Which animal do

you think is the most

attractive?

35.42

10.42 15.63 19.79 18.75
53. Which animal

would you most like to own as a pet?

26.04

8.33 23.96 18.75 22.92

Note: This table shows the most frequent responses chosen by participants in Section IV D with the percentage of participants whom chose that response. Underlined responses were the most frequent responses chosen for each Item.

In Section IV D, unlike the other subsections of Section IV, in which the first image of the fox presented a standard wild red fox and the images following gradually increased in the amount of manipulation brought on by domestication, these images were unrelated to one another. Instead of showing a gradual progression of manipulation, this series simply showed five different colors that a fox’s fur can display, two found in the wild and three only found in selectively bred foxes.

Knowledge of the Farm-Fox Experiment

This study intended to assess participants’ knowledge of the Farm-Fox Experiment conducted by the Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Novisibirsk, Russia by asking participants the question, “Do you have knowledge of the Farm-Fox Experiment conducted by the Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Novisibirsk, Russia?” in Item 6. Out of the 97 participants who responded to this question, only 4 (4.12%) responded that they had knowledge of the experiment.


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